Black Pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, known as a peppercorn, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. Black pepper is native to present-day South India and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Black pepper is the world's most traded spice, and is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world. Its spiciness is due to the chemical compound piperine, which is a different kind of spicy from the capsicin characteristic of chilli peppers. It is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning, and is often paired with salt and available on dining tables in shakers or mills.
Black Pepper produces a pungent heat that is neither flavour nor fragrance, but a pain-like sensation very similar to chilli heat. The spice also has a woody aroma with floral, fruity and citrus elements, and some bitterness.